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Tai Chi

Author Topic: Tai Chi  (Read 11516 times)

TODD

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Tai Chi
« on: December 13, 2003, 10:55:50 AM »
I know nothing about internal arts.  What is Tai Chi and what does it do for you?

Offline Jess

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #1 on: December 13, 2003, 02:38:36 PM »
Tai Chi is known for it's slow flowing movements.
It focuses on breathing and energy fow through out the body and is probably know more for it's health benifits.

The Yang style is probably the most popular, but there are also the Chen, Sun, Wu, Ng..etc. Each having unique aspects but keeping core principls in common.

A short answer but hope it helps
Sifu Lauren Jessup,

Northern Tum Pai Tai Chi Ch'uan
Under GM Jay Burkey

Offline D-Man

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #2 on: December 16, 2003, 03:02:39 AM »
Tai Chi Chuan is literally translated as "Grand Ultimate Excercise."  It is a means of developing the mind, the body, and most importantly, the connection between the two.  Through meditation, correct body alignment & structure, proper breathing, and relaxation, Tai Chi has the potential to releive stress, increase health & longevity, mental functionality, internal strength (power), balance, and coordination.  And best of all, anyone can do it!

It can be studied for health reasons and/or it's martial applications.  I could not do what I do in Tum Pai without it, I couldn't even do what I do in the lawn or on the job with out it.  It has improved my life tremendously.  In my school, I hear comments from students that study Tai Chi and ones that don't, that can see a major difference in the quality of martial skill from the Tai Chi practioners and the rest of the students.

Considering the fact that it's all about proper body mechanics and mental coodination, there is nothing mystical or religous about Tai Chi, but people who are very good at it, like my teacher, almost seem to have super natural powers.  They can release an incredible amount of power, along with other cool stuff.  One time I was sparring with my teacher and he shot some sort of energy fireball at me that repelled me backwards without him even touching me.  Ha ha, just kidding about the fireball.  

Did I mention Tai Chi can be boring?
« Last Edit: December 16, 2003, 03:09:03 AM by D-Man »

Offline badsifu

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #3 on: December 16, 2003, 10:47:14 AM »
Taijiquan is the full name for what most people over here call Tai Chi.  The direct translation as taught to me at Guangxi University in Nanning, P.R. China is "The Great Energy of the Fist."  The "ji/qi/chi" part is the energy part.  Similar to QiGung, or the "ki" in Ki-ai, it is supposted to mean your inner spirit.  Tai Chi is an exercise to harness that inner spirit.
It has been my experience that Tai Chi only enhances the Kaju techniques that we do.  I think it would enhance ANY martial art form for that matter.   Tai Chi principles teach balance by promoting great foot work, proper positioning of the upper body by not over exerting, and great control by focusing on the subtlies of movement accompanied by deep and thoughtful breathing.  By breaking down the movements into slow, flowing, but still calculated techniques, and then applying the same method to you Kajukenbo techniques - only good can come.
I have a list of drills that anyone can do.  These are techniques that I learned in the P.R. of China and continue to teach to my Tai Chi students today.  If you are serious about learning more about Tai Chi, I can email them to you.
Dan Tyrrell

Offline BB54

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #4 on: December 16, 2003, 12:01:39 PM »
One of the many side benefits of practicing Tai Chi Chuan is that your movements become very smooth and difficult for your opponent to key in on.  There is no jerk reflex or other indication that the attack or counter attack is forth coming.  Also the range of fighting is slightly different.  The distance that is the most effective seems to be the area that is not close to intermediate range nor the grappling range but some where in between.  The efficient economy of motion developed will make your fast movements faster.
Brian Bruce Baxter. 8th Degree Black Belt Kajukenbo (Gaylord Method).  3rd Degree Black Belt Tracy's Kenpo Karate. 3rd Degree Black Belt Aikijitsu. 2nd Degree Black Belt Mu Duk Kwan.  22 years experience Yang Tai Chi Chuan.

Offline D-Man

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #5 on: December 17, 2003, 12:52:07 AM »
I just wanted to correct my last post-

Tai Chi Chuan is not leterally translated as "grand ultimate exercise," it's more like what badsifu said or commonly "grand ultimate fist."  Tai Chi has been called the grand ultimate exercise but the word "chuan" obviously implies that "fist" is in the name somewhere.

Thank you for the diplomatic correction badsifu.

Offline guarded

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #6 on: January 07, 2004, 03:59:04 AM »
I have noticed as many improvements outside of training as in.  I don't over extend when lifting and don't twist at the waist without moving my feet.  Good for the posture.
Jerry Guard
Kajukenbo Tum Pai Brown/Black Sash under Prof. Steve Larson          My everyday stance is my fighting stance.  My fighting stance is my everyday stance.

Offline Dave Bock

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #7 on: January 12, 2004, 01:04:19 PM »
I wrote a paper regarding Tai Chi for an english class at college.  It has been suggested that I post it for those curious about Tai Chi.  It is too long for a single post so I will add it in sections, enjoy.

Offline Dave Bock

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #8 on: January 12, 2004, 01:06:26 PM »
Part 1
Opening

   You are walking through the park on a warm sunny day enjoying all the splendor that nature has to offer.  You see one person then another and another.  
Suddenly, as you become aware of an imminent assault, your body settles into 'Dan Tien' (Dan Tien is a point in your body four inches below the navel in the center).  Simultaneously, your legs feel as if they are made from sand flowing into the ground providing a solid 'root' that remains agile and light.
Your back extends as if there are strings gently pulling on your spine.  One attached to the crown of your head pulling skywards, the other attached to the base of your spine pulling towards the center of the earth.  The light tension provided by these strings properly aligns your spine and when combined with the 'root' properly balances your body.  
After you have the proper spinal alignment, you relax and achieve the state of 'sung'.  Sung is a state of preparedness in which a light tension exists throughout the body, no more and no less tension than what is required to hold the posture or continue the movement.  Westerners often translate 'sung' as relaxed but, relaxed to westerners often implies some limpness which does not exist within sung.     
You perceive this process as having taken minutes when it only required a moment.
   Suddenly you feel the pressure of the first assault and you begin to flow along with the attack just out of reach; always just within reach tempting your opponent to follow you into emptiness.  Your opponent loses his balance and you move back into his space counter-attacking him.  As another one of your assailants attacks from the opposite direction also following you into emptiness.  Attack after attack comes again and again you attach to your opponents attack just out of his reach, always just within reach, tempting your opponents to follow you into emptiness so that you may counter attack.
   As suddenly the assault began it ends and your fallen imaginary opponents disappear only to wait for you to call them forth again when it is time to practice your solo forms.  
   Some of the other park occupants comment on the beauty of the movements others on the foolish appearance of this dance.  However, after years of practice, the reactions of your unintended audience do not affect your peace of mind or the quality of practice.
   After years of solo and partnered practice, I realize that the sensations in applying these techniques against a real or imaginary foe is the same.  

Offline Dave Bock

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #9 on: January 12, 2004, 01:09:13 PM »
Part 2
Basic Overview of Martial Styles

   There are essentially two types of martial arts, hard or external and soft or internal styles.
   Hard styles of martial arts, such as Karate', Eagle Claw Kung Fu, and Tae Kwon Do, pit strength against strength, speed against speed.  These styles generally stand toe to toe and slug it out, usually resulting in the strongest and fastest becoming the victor in these contests.  The hard stylist is like the mighty oak tree resisting the storm and the wind, eventually shattering when the force is too great.
   Hard styles of martial arts were originally used to train soldiers and citizens with basic self-defense skills.  The entire system of a hard style of martial art may be learned in a couple of months to a couple of years, depending on how complete the system is.  The only improvement possible in a hard style is through continuous practice, hopefully resulting in more speed and strength.  
   Training in the hard styles tends to be just that, hard.  The training is often punishing in an effort to make the practitioner tougher, stronger, and faster, with very little finesse.  The only subtleties learned usually come by way of a very painful mistake.
   Do not ever make the mistake of underestimating a hard style, the techniques that are used and taught by them remain and exist because, they are quickly and easily learned along with being brutally efficient.
   Soft styles of martial arts such as Tai Chi Chuan, Ba Gua Chang, Aikido, and Aikijitsu, rely on efficient use of your opponent's own force against him.  The soft style martial art techniques are based in philosophy, psychology, physiology, and physics.  
Soft style techniques blend with the opponent's energy, interfering with both his mental and physical balance.  The soft stylist uses these interfering strategies to place his opponent in a position from which he is unable to offer resistance.  Additionally, soft stylists are trained to successfully apply these basic strategies against stronger, faster opponents.    
The soft stylist is like the slender willow tree, bending and flexing, giving way before the storm returning like a whip when the wind abates.  They do not meet force with force or compete in a contest of speed against an opponent.
   Soft styles of martial arts were often reserved to royalty, officers, and the reclusive Shoalin Monks simply because, the average citizen did not have the free time necessary to learn a soft style of martial art.  The soft styles were also the 'Ace in the Hole' against rebellion because, they were specifically designed to overcome hard styles.
   The draw back to the soft styles is the average time required to learn all of the philosophies and basic techniques of a martial art like Tai Chi Chuan requires six to ten years of uninterrupted study and practice.  Training in a Soft style is normally an addition to a hard style that has already been mastered, which may have required years of practice.
The physical practice requires working with a partner who is willing to make a genuine attack that will cause injury if not successfully countered.  Actual attacks are necessary to develop the blending ability required by the soft or internal styles.  The attack does not have to be blindingly fast or at full power only genuine in its origin.  To protect the participants from injury in this type of training the attack and counter is agreed to before beginning so that there are no surprises.  Surprises have resulted in injury to either or both parties.

Offline Dave Bock

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #10 on: January 12, 2004, 01:10:17 PM »
Part 3
A Brief History of Tai Chi Chuan

   To understand Tai Chi Chuan as a martial art it is important to know a little about it's history.
   The history of Tai Chi Chuan (also Taijiquan) is multifaceted and diverse.  In other words, there are as many stories about the origin of Tai Chi Chuan as there are fish in the sea.
   Many of the legends regarding the ultimate origin of Tai Chi Chuan's principles involve Zhang Sanfeng.  A master of the Taoist hard style martial arts and an expert acupuncturist, he sought to create the ultimate fighting system.  He combined the Taoist philosophies and the Shoalin hard style martial arts along with his knowledge of acupuncture.  The series of 'quan' or forms he developed were sets of continuos movements that demonstrated the principles and mechanics of his new fighting system.  This new fighting system was to capitalize on innate human weaknesses that were capable of incapacitating or killing his opponents with a single blow along with a minimal effort on the part of the practitioner.  This new martial art was created as an internal style with hard style roots.
   One of my favorite stories is that in approximately 1270 BC Zhang Sanfeng traveled throughout China to corroborate his theories by testing them on humans and animals.  Legend has it he would even bribe local prison guards so that he could practice on death row inmates.
   In order to train his students Zhang Sanfeng is reputed to have created his own version of the Bronze Man.  The Bronze Man was a life-sized statue with all of the healing acupuncture points marked on it for the training of physicians.  Zhang Sanfeng's Bronze Man was for instruction of the locations of the harmful and dangerous points of acupuncture (Often referred to as vital points; their teaching was outlawed.).  As a training tool, Zhang Sanfeng's Bronze Man statue was filled with mercury and had holes at all of the vital point locations on the body, the holes were plugged with wax.  In practice, blind folded students would use a needle to prick the vital points and if mercury flowed from the 'wound' the attack was considered successful.
   This is another story that credits Zhang Sanfeng with the creation of Tai Chi Chuan.  One day during his meditation he noticed a white crane and a snake fighting in the distance.  Zhang Sanfeng intently observed the contest, which resulted in a draw.  He admired the crane for its graceful and powerful movements and the snake for its speed and flexibility.  Later he meditated about the movements he had witnessed in the contest between the snake and crane which became the inspiration to create Tai Chi Chuan.
   This story sounds similar to divine inspiration, which is not very likely.
    According to Peter Liam Tek's article "The Origin Theories", the oldest known written works on Tai Chi Chuan are "The Three Old Manuals" by Li I-Yu (1832-1892).  
Li learned Yang style Tai Chi Chuan from his Uncle Wu Yu Xiang who was a student of Yang Lu Chan, the founder of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan.
In the "The Three Old Manuals" Li recorded his own writings, the work of his uncle, Wu Yu Xiang, and those of Wang Tsung Yueh, about the Tai Chi Chuan Classics and the art.
In his "Brief Preface to Tai Chi Chuan" Li wrote that the creator of the art was Zhang Sanfeng.  Li also wrote in his book about Wang Tsung Yueh trained the Chen family members in the Chen village, Wang was a student of Zhang Sanfeng.  The Chen village is also where Yang Lu Chan later learned the principles of Tai Chi Chuan from the Chen family.
Later, Li I-Yu rewrote the first sentence of his Introduction to say that the founder was unknown.  This could be caused by differing origin theories in the post-Chen Ching Ping period.  However, this is still the earliest record we have on the origins of Tai Chi Chuan.
The oldest known written document was revised, indicating that the true origin of Tai Chi Chuan remains unknown.  The majority of the legends (to numerous to go into here) give credit to Zhang Sanfeng as the originator of the principles of Tai Chi Chuan.  

Offline Dave Bock

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #11 on: January 12, 2004, 01:12:22 PM »
Part 4
Principles of Tai Chi Chuan

The primary basis is the Taoist belief of Wu Chi from which springs Yin and Yang.  Wu Chi is commonly referred to as stillness in motion.  Yin is the soft element and Yang is the hard element of Wu Chi, they are inherent in all things. Yin and Yang are inseparable, even in the most extreme cases of Yin there exists a small amount of Yang, the reverse is also true.  Good cannot exist without evil, light without dark, or hard without soft.
Between the inseparable extremes of Yin and Yang exists all of the possibilities in the universe and from this the Tai Chi philosophies developed.  

Following are a four of the major principles or Tai Chi philosophies based in Yin and Yang.

   Four ounces will defeat a thousand pounds.
   To go forward you must first go back.
   To move up you must first go down.
   'Yi ye yin chi' which means, "The Mind Leads the Chi"

 
   In my opinion,  one of the best Tai Chi type of philosophies ever written was by Theodore Roosevelt, a man who did not even know Tai Chi Chuan.  He has been quoted as saying, "Do what you can, with what you have, where you are at."  This quote encompasses the Tai Chi Chuan principle that every movement is a hit or a block, a kick or a sweep.  The entire body is simultaneously a weapon and shield.
The principles of Tai Chi Chuan are usually expressed in poetry or as metaphors.  This is because, the concepts they are trying to convey are normally to complex to be explained verbally or in writing and must be experienced to be properly understood.
Many of the names of the forms are also metaphorical because they are similar in their basic movement to their namesake.  For example 'Fair lady works the shuttles', 'snake creeps down', 'repulse monkey', ' wave hands like clouds' and 'seek the needle at the sea bottom'.  
'Fair lady works the shuttles' is named for the movement pattern used by a woman working a fabric loom.  This Tai Chi movement is very versatile in its applications.  It allows for hits, throws, trips, pushes, etc.
'Seek the Needle at the Sea Bottom' refers to an acupuncture point on the sole of the foot.  The acupuncture point is known as the 'Well of the Sea'.  The motion was taught to me as simultaneously squatting, pointing and extending between my opponent's feet.  It also has multiple applications.
The reason the forms are expressed in a metaphorical fashion is to make them easier to remember and to aid in learning the applications of the movement.
Not all of the movements have metaphorical names.  Some of the movements have names that are more straightforward than their metaphorical cousins, such as 'Hook Step Parry and Punch', 'Brush Knee and Push', 'Press', 'Push', and 'Punch Under Elbow' to name a few.  However, these names are still not specific enough to interpret all of their possible uses.
The only application limitation for any of the forms is the imagination of the Tai Chi practitioner and the laws of physics.
   All Tai Chi Chuan movements contain coiling and spiraling.  The coiling and spiraling movements of the Tai Chi forms train the practitioner to move in a circular and twisting fashion in application which dissipates and redirects the attacks from his opponent.  This is accomplished by attaching to your opponents attack, matching speed, and direction, then you apply a small amount of pressure vectoring your opponents attack into a near miss.  This is similar to how the wind effects a bullet fired from a gun.
   If an adversary should push a Tai Chi practitioner, his assailant soon finds himself chasing his victim around a corner, leading him out of position, and off balance.  
   One of the other advantages in moving in spirals is that your opponent is unable to apply force around a corner.  Additionally it is impossible to resist an incoming circular force because, the human body can only resist or generate force in one direction at a time.
   The most difficult lesson learned by new students is that when Tai Chi Chuan is performed properly there is little if any physical resistance (feedback) creating the impression that they did nothing to their assailant even though he was overcome.  In addition, when they are in the role of assailant they are not always overpowered physically leaving them wondering if they had ever actually attacked.

Offline Dave Bock

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #12 on: January 12, 2004, 01:13:57 PM »
Part 5
Basic Techniques

Punching, kicking, blocking, sweeping, throws and pushes all exist as basic Tai Chi Chuan techniques.  The basic techniques of Tai Chi Chuan encompass almost all other martial arts basic techniques.
There are only so many was to move the human body which causes a lot of overlap between martial arts and a lot of discussion about what is and is not part of a particular style because a hand or foot is turned a degree or two more or less etc..
   Once again, all of these basic techniques are only applied after you have lead your opponents energy and body into a position which will not allow him to resist or withstand your assault.

Chin Na (Techniques for Seizing Control)

   Chin Na is a category of supplemental techniques to existing martial art systems that are specifically design to allow the practitioner to seize control of the situation.  Chin Na exists within all martial systems to some degree.  These techniques are usually the 'secret all powerful' techniques that allow the user to overcome any adversary.  When Chin Na is used properly this seems to be true.
Chin Na is often translated in English as 'to seize and control' or 'to seize or to control'.  After training in Chin Na techniques for several years, I have concluded that this translation is slightly in error.  My definition of Chin Na is literally 'to seize control'
I am not required to grab or hold my opponent to seize control.  Many of the Chin Na techniques involve striking the opponent in a manor that prevents him from continuing his assault.  This allows the practitioner of Chin Na to 'seize control of the moment'.  When an opponent is crippled, maimed, or even killed, he is no longer able to continue his attack and I have seized control.  
   Certain Chin Na techniques obtain psychological control of an opponent by rapidly attacking and horribly mutilating one of his cohorts.  The remaining opponents are normally discouraged by this type of technique and choose flight over continued assault.
   Tai Chi Chin Na relies on all of the basic principles of Tai Chi Chuan.  Blend and lead your opponent's energy to place him in a position from which resistance is impossible.  Then the opportunity is presented to apply one of the many Chin Na techniques.
   Following is a list of Tai Chin Na categories taken from Dr. Yang Jwing Mings book "Taiji Chin Na : The Seizing Art of Taijiquan".
   
   Chin Na Categories:
   1. "Fen Jin" (dividing the muscle/tendon)
   2. "Cuo Gu" (misplacing the bone/ligament)
   3. "Bi Qi" (sealing the breath)
   4. "Dian Mai" (Dim Mak, in Cantonese)(pressing a vein /artery) or "Duan Mai" (sealing or blocking the vein/artery)
   5. "Dian Xue" (cavity press) or "Dian Mai" (Dim Mak, in Cantonese)(pressing a primary Qi channel)
   Fen Jin also includes "Zhua Jin" (grabbing the muscle/tendon) and Dian Xue also includes "Na Xue" (grabbing or pressing the cavities).
   Dim Mak is a term heard in many of the 'B' martial art movies and is commonly known as the 'Death Touch' in the western world.  Review of the proceeding categories would indicate that 'Death Touch' is not to far off of the mark.
   Dim Mak is used to attack blood vessels, nerves, and Chi (Qi) channels separately or in complex combinations causing pain and numbness or unconsciousness or even death.  
   Some of the most basic attacks are simply pinching the blood vessels stopping the blood flow and inducing pain.  The most likely of candidates are the Brachial, Radial, Ulnar, Femoral, and Carotid arteries and the Jugular vein.
   This only scratches the surface of possible targets for a Dim Mak attack there are far to many combinations to go into in such a small paper.  Entire lifetimes and huge tomes have been created over the centuries on this subject alone, so I will skip the rest for now.
   Bi Qi can be accomplished in a couple of very straightforward methods, all of which simply close the windpipe, thus sealing the breath.
   However, there are Bi Qi techniques that overlap with Dim Mak.  These techniques involve striking the nerve endings and specific muscles in the rib cage causing the muscles to contract and spasm, essentially squeezing the breath out of you with your own, muscles, sealing the breath.
   Bi Qi can have temporary or permanent results but, not with any type of predictability due to the variability in people.
   Fen Jin and Cuo Gu are different categories but, in practice Cuo Gu is almost impossible to separate from Fen Jin.  This is because, it is almost impossible to break the bones without damaging the surrounding tissue so I will cover Fen Jin and Cuo Gu together.
   The principles behind Fen Jin and Cuo Gu are very straightforward, tear the muscle and tendon from the bone/ligament and or tear the bone/ligament from the tendon and muscle.  This is simply accomplished by placing the limb (limbs and appendages are the normal victims of these techniques due to the ease of access) in a position which is nearly at the point of structural failure and apply more pressure.  Snap!

Offline Dave Bock

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Re:Tai Chi
« Reply #13 on: January 12, 2004, 01:17:32 PM »
Part 6
Weapons of Tai Chi Chuan

   The traditional weapons of Tai Chi Chuan are the straight sword (in China swords are any length double edged weapons with a handle), the knife (in China knives are any length single edged weapons with a handle), the long and short staffs, the spear, and the cane.
   There are a variety of non-traditional weapons used that is dependent on the particular style of study.  The strangest of these weapons to me are sewing/knitting needles and a paper fan.
   In Tai Chi weapons are not treated like separate entities but are merely extensions of the body.  Any technique that is performed empty handed is essentially the same with any weapon in hand however, making allowances for relatively large weight and length changes is a necessity.  The usage of any weapon still follows the principles of blending and leading the opponent's energy.


Tai Chi Chuan as a Martial Art

   Westerner civilization has the general impression that Tai Chi Chuan is little more than a slow dance used primarily by the elderly as an exercise.  Most self-proclaimed western Tai Chi instructors only teach it as an exercise, rarely demonstrating crude inefficient self-defense applications used in the manner of or borrowed from a hard style martial art.  This reinforces the belief that Tai Chi is only a dance.  
   Tai Chi Chuan is primarily used as an efficient low impact exercise that increases strength and coordination.  It also keeps the minds of its practitioners young by providing mental stimulation with visualization in practice and the study of its philosophies.  Tai Chi Chuan is even recommended as physical therapy to slow the progress of or prevent arthritis; it accomplishes this by strengthening the bones and ligaments and by improving circulation in the joints.  However, the fact remains that Tai Chi Chuan is a sophisticated martial art that has been bastardized to suit the requirements of a modern society.  
   The reason that Tai Chi Chuan is dying out as a martial art is primarily two fold, the time involved and lack of necessity.
   To master all of the martial aspects, the medical and health aspects, and all of the philosophies takes more than a single lifetime.  Too learn all of these things well enough to be turned loose to teach others and continue your own study requires as much or more time than the acquisition of a doctorate degree, that is a lot of commitment.
   There is also the lack of necessity; the advent of firearms defeated the need to train for years to become efficient at defending yourself.  Of course, if the gun control proponents have their way it may become necessary to train once more in hand to hand combat to overcome our illegally armed assailants.
   

Conclusion

   The history of Tai Chi Chuan demonstrates it was originally a martial art developed to overcome assailants with little or no effort on the part of the practitioner.  Hidden within the forms are all of the applications ranging from simple escape to the legendary Death Touch, and the key to most of the techniques can be found in the poetry and philosophies of the art.  Those very same forms contain the usage of all of the weapons available to the practitioner.
   There are other aspects of Tai Chi Chuan that are not discussed here but they can be read about in some of the books listed in the bibliography.  Some of these aspects are healing and physical medicine, meditation, and Chi Kung.
   Tai Chi Chuan still provides many benefits from its practice as preventative medicine and as a method of physical therapy.
   I am just attempting to make people aware that Tai Chi Chuan was originally a successful martial art that later provided all of these other side benefits, and that it is not just an exercise.


Bibliography

Casey, Kevin K.         Illustrated History of Martial Arts
               Vero Beach: The Rourke Co. Inc.

Chia, Siew Pang and       Tai Chi Ten Minutes to Health,
Goh Ewe Hock         Singapore: Times Books International

Crompton, Paul         The Art of Tai Chi,
               Rockport: Element Books Inc.

Goleman, Daniel         Emotional Intelligence,
               New York: Bantam Books

Jwing-Ming, Yang, Dr.      Comprehensive Applications of Shaolin
Chin Na (Qin Na : The Practical Defense of Chinese Seizing Arts
            for All Martial Arts Styles)
            Boston: YMAA Publications
 
Jwing-Ming, Yang, Dr.   Taiji Chin Na : The Seizing Art of Taijiquan (Chinese Internal Martial Arts)
      Boston: YMAA Publications

McCarthy, Patrick      Bubishi The Bible of Karate,
               Singapore: Charles E. Tuttle Co. Inc.

Tek, Peter Lim Tian      Peter's Taijiquan Resource Page,
               http://sunflower.singet.com.sg/~limttk/